What is Fifth Generation Language (5GL)

A programming language is a computer language that is invented to communicate instructions to a machine especially a computer. Programming languages are used to create programs or algorithms to examine and control the behavior of a machine. This comes under generation of computer languages.

What is Fifth Generation Language?

A fifth-generation programming language is based on solving using constraints given to the program rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer. It is introduced in the 1990s.

It very closely resembles human speech. Examples are PROLOG, Mercury, OPS5, AI, etc. These programming languages are designed to make the computer smarter and more intelligent. It is mainly used in artificial intelligence research.

The programming language of this generation focus on constraints programming. The constraints programming is similar to that of declarative programming.

Declarative programming is a programming paradigm in which the programmer only needs to specify the solutions to be found within the constraints rather than specifying the method or algorithm of finding the desired solution.

The major fields in which Fifth generation programming languages are employed are Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The following are some of the fifth-generation programming languages Mercury, Prolog, OPS5, etc.

Fifth-generation languages are used in the field of Artificial Intelligence. It is constraints-based programming. When larger programs are introduced then it becomes difficult for creating the algorithm to solve the problems. 

Then it becomes necessary to create such algorithms and hence there is an introduction of 5GLPROLOG (Programming Logic) is an example of fifth-generation language. It is based on mathematical logic to solve the problems given by the programmer.

Fifth-generation language is a constraints-based programming language. It is a programming language that contains visual tools to help develop a program. It uses system automation. It is used in AI (Artificial Intelligence) research.

Fifth-generation languages use some AI technologies natural language processing (NLP), visual programming, and a graphical approach to programming. 

Codes are automatically generated and designed to make the computer solve a problem without a programmer or with minimum programming effort.

Advantages of Fifth Generation Languages

1. The Fifth generation languages allow the users to communicate with the computer system in a simple and easy manner.

2. Programmers can use normal English words while interacting with the computer system.

3. The fifth-generation languages can be used to carry the database in a fast and efficient manner.

Some Fifth-Generation Programming Language and its Features


Mercury is a 5th generation programming language. It is a logical programming language. It is used to create very large programs and is very fast and reliable.

The syntax of Mercury and Prolog both are the same. But both the languages are different as Mercury's module system, type, and mode are different.

The programmers can create their own abstract data types according to its use in Mercury. It handles dynamic data structures and provides several abstract data types.

It is very efficient and is a modded language. It is a declarative programming language. It has a module system that is very strong and it also supports higher-order programming.


Prolog stands for Programming with Logic. It is a high-level programming language. It is also a logical and declarative fifth-generation programming language like Mercury.

It plays a major role in the field of AI (Artificial Intelligence). It can easily find whether any statements are following logic or not. The programs written in Prolog are often smaller easier to understand and maintain.

Backtracking is one of the features of the Prolog programming language. It supports recursion. It is sometimes called rule-based language. In prolog, logics are indicated as relations.

It may be a choice in the rapid prototyping process. It works with Mac OS, Linux and Windows.

3. OPS5

OPS5 stands for the Official Production System. It was developed by Charles Forgey in 1970. It is also a fifth-generation programming language. It is a rule-based production system programming language.

A rule consists of pre-conditions and a resulting action. The system checks into memory for the rules whose pre-condition is verified. If verified, then the action of the satisfied rule is executed. It is used in artificial intelligence, expert systems.

It uses a forward chaining inference engine. The programs are executed by scanning working memory elements if the pre-condition rule verified in the production memory.

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